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Image courtesy Martin Ota, MRC Fajara
Organised by Professor Adrian Hill and Professor Brian Greenwood FRS
Recent advances in knowledge of pathogen genomics and of innate immunity provide exceptional opportunities for the development of new vaccines. Development of effective vaccines against some major killers such as HIV, malaria and tuberculosis has proved challenging but progress is being made and many new vaccines have reached the stage of clinical trials. Development of vaccines against some non- infectious diseases is also making progress. This meeting will review opportunities to design, develop and deploy the new vaccines urgently needed to meet global health priorities.
Biographies of speakers, chairs and organisers are available below, in addition to audio recordings of the sessions.
The proceedings of this meeting have now been published in the 12 October 2011 issue of Philosophical Transactions B.
Professor Adrian Hill, Oxford University, UKVaccines against malaria parasites
Adrian Hill trained at Trinity College Dublin and Oxford is now Professor of Human Genetics and Director of the Jenner Institute at Oxford University. He leads research programmes in genetic susceptibility to tropical infectious diseases and in vaccine design and development.
His group identified heterologous prime-boost immunisation using non-replicating vectors as an exceptionally potent approach for inducing protective T cell responses in murine malaria and undertook the first clinical trials of this vaccination strategy. In 2005 he was appointed Director of the Jenner Institute, a new initiative aimed at accelerating public sector vaccine development for a variety of human and livestock infectious diseases. The Institute aims to fill the gap between pre-clinical vaccine design and large-scale field efficacy trials particularly for infections that pose great disease burdens in developing countries. Over fifty clinical trials have been undertaken in recent years by Jenner Investigators who are developing new vaccines against malaria, HIV, tuberculosis, meningitis, pandemic influenza and hepatitis.
He currently also chairs the Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine and the Clinical Biomanufacturing Facility in Oxford. He has published over 350 research papers. He is a Fellow of the UK Academy of Medical Sciences and the Royal College of Physicians and a NIHR Senior Investigator.
Professor Brian Greenwood, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UKIntroduction
Brian Greenwood qualified in medicine at the University of Cambridge, UK in 1962. Following house-officer appointments in London, he spent 3 years in Western Nigeria as a medical registrar and research fellow at University College Hospital, Ibadan. After receiving training in clinical immunology in the UK, he returned to Nigeria in 1970, this time to help in establishing a new medical school at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria where he developed his research interests in malaria and meningococcal disease whilst continuing to teach and practice both adult and paediatric medicine.
In 1980, he moved to the UK Medical Research Council Laboratories in The Gambia which he directed for the next 15 years. In The Gambia, he helped to establish a multi-disciplinary research programme which focused on some of the most important infectious diseases prevalent in The Gambia and neighbouring countries such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, meningitis, hepatitis and HIV2. Work undertaken during this period included demonstration of the efficacy of insecticide treated bednets in preventing death from malaria in African children and demonstration of the impact of Haemophilusinfluenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines when deployed in sub-Saharan Africa.
In 1996, he was appointed to the staff of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine where he is now Manson Professor of Clinical Tropical Medicine. From 2001 -2008 he directed the Gates Malaria Partnership which supported a programme of research and capacity development in many countries in Africa directed at improving treatment and prevention of malaria. In 2008, he became director of a new malaria research capacity development initiative, supported by the Wellcome Trust and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Malaria Capacity Development Consortium, which supports a post-graduate malaria training programme in five universities in sub-Saharan Africa. He is also director of a new consortium which is studying the epidemiology of meningococcal infection in Africa prior to the introduction of a new conjugate vaccine.
Brian Greenwood has published over 600 papers on a variety of infectious diseases but particularly malaria. He has acted as an advisor to WHO, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, a number of public private partnerships and pharmaceutical companies engaged in the development of drugs or vaccines for use in the developing world.
Mr Stephen Cox CVO, Executive Secretary, Royal Society Welcome
Dr Julian Lob–Levyt, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation, Geneva, SwitzerlandThe contribution of GAVI to global vaccination
Professor Shizuo Akira, Osaka University, JapanInnate immunity and adjuvants
MD, Osaka University 1977, Ph.D. Osaka University 1984, Fellow, California University at Berkeley 1985-87, Research Associate, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University 1987-95, Professor, Hyogo College of Medicine 1996-99, Professor, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University 1999-present, Director, World Premier International Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University 2007-present. Honors. Robert Koch Prize (Robert Koch Foundation, Germany) (2004), William B. Coley Award (Cancer Research Institute, USA) (2006), Imperial Prize and Japan Academy Prize (2007), Milstein Award (International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research) (2007), National Academy of Sciences of USA, Foreign Associate (2009), Person of Cultural Merit (2009), Avery-Landsteiner Prize (German Society for Immunology) (2010)
Akira has shown by generating TLR family knockout mice that individual TLRs recognize different microbial components and established the role of TLR family as pathogen recognition receptors, and further clarified the whole picture of their signaling pathways. Akira has authored over 700 papers, and is the top cited researcher in the immunological field since 2004. In 2006 and 2007 he was twice recognized the hottest scientist who had published the greatest number of Hot Papers over the preceding two years.
Session 1, 1st Discussion
Dr Rino Rappuoli, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, ItalyVaccines to address the needs of a 21st century society
Session 1, 2nd Discussion
Dr Gary Nabel, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USAProgress in the rational design of an AIDS vaccine
Dr Nabel received his bachelor's degree in 1975 from Harvard College. He received his doctorate in 1980 and his medical degree in 1982, both from Harvard University. After completing an internal medicine residency at Brigham and Women's Hospital in 1984, he was a research fellow at the Whitehead Institute at MIT in the laboratory of D. David Baltimore and an instructor at Harvard Medical School from 1984 to 1987. He joined the University of Michigan and Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1987 and was the Henry A. Sewall Professor of Internal Medicine and Biological Chemistry and an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute prior to accepting his current position as Director of the Vaccine Research Center at the National Institutes of Health in April of 1999.
Dr Nabel is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His laboratory has developed gene transfer strategies that are being applied to the development of vaccines and treatment of AIDS, Ebola virus, cancer, and other diseases. In addition, his laboratory studies NF-B gene regulation with an emphasis on its relation to cell cycle progression, transformation, and viral infection by human immunodeficiency virus.
Professor Albert Osterhaus, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, NetherlandsInfluenza vaccines: what and when?
Professor Osterhaus is the Head of the Department of Virology of the Erasmus MC Rotterdam with currently about 150 employees, including 14 post-docs, 6 MDs and 10 PhD students. He is also Director National Influenza Center (NIC), Rotterdam; Head WHO National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella with RIVM Bilthoven, Rotterdam; Director WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Haemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, Rotterdam; Chairman of the Postgraduate School Molecular Medicine Erasmus MC; and CSO Viroclinics Biosciences B.V., a spin-out company of the Erasmus MC that performs (pre) clinical research services for industry. He has a broad experience in leading research projects in the fields of vaccine development and immunopathogenesis of virus infections of man and animals. He completed his Ph.D. at University of Utrecht, The Netherlands in 1978. Since then, he has held various positions at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
Furthermore, he holds many editorial appointments for scientific journals, is the holder of several patents, has been the mentor of more than 50 PhD students and from 1980 onwards has held over 50 consultancies. Over the last 20 years, Prof. Osterhaus has identified more than a dozen "new" viral pathogens. He is author of more than 850 peer reviewed scientific papers.
Session 2, 1st Discussion
Professor David Paton, Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UKFoot and mouth disease and livestock vaccines
David Paton is a veterinarian who graduated from Cambridge University in 1984 and after three years working in veterinary practice in UK and Australia has spent the last 23 years as a veterinary virologist specialising in the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of various viral livestock diseases. He was for six years Secretary of the European Society for Veterinary Virology and became head of the Virology Department at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency in 1998. In 2001, he joined the Institute for Animal Health (IAH) to work on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control as Head of the FMD World Reference Laboratory and was subsequently appointed as Head of the FMD Programme at IAH. He is now Director of Science at IAH and a Jenner Vaccine Fellow. He is a visiting Professor of the Royal Veterinary College, University of London and has contributed to 150 published scientific papers.
Professor Helen McShane, University of Oxford, UKTB vaccines: beyond BCG
Session 2, 2nd Discussion
Professor Richard Moxon FRS, University of Oxford, UKChair, Session 3
Richard Moxon MA, F.Med.Sci, FRS isEmeritus Professor of Paediatrics and a Professorial Fellow of Jesus College at the University of Oxford. His paediatric and research training was in the UK (1966-1969) and the USA (1970-1974). He was Assistant and then Associate Professor of Paediatrics at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore (1974-1984), becoming the Eudowood Director of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in 1981 before he was elected as Action Research Professor and Chairman of Paediatrics at Oxford University (1984 - 2008) and Head of the Molecular Infectious Diseases Group in the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine (1988-2008). He is a Fellow of the UK Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and of the UK Academy of Medical Sciences and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2007. His major research interests have been on the pathogenesis and prevention of sepsis and meningitis caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.
Professor Keith Klugman, Emory University, Atlanta, USAContribution of vaccines to our understanding of pneumococcal disease
Keith Klugman is the William H. Foege Chair and Professor in the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. He is also Professor of Medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases of the Emory School of Medicine and a Visiting Researcher in the Respiratory Diseases Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He is the Co-Director of the Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit of the University of Witwatersrand, the Medical Research Council, and the National Institute for Communicable Diseases in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Dr. Klugman is the President – Elect of the International Society for Infectious Diseases and Chair of the International Board of the American Society for Microbiology, the largest single life science society with over 42,000 members worldwide. He has chaired expert committees for the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Wellcome Trust in London, England. He serves as an editor or member of the editorial board of eight international journals on medicine, infectious diseases, and antimicrobials. Dr. Klugman’s research interests are in antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance, and vaccines for bacterial pathogens–particularly the pneumococcus. He has published more than 400 papers in the scientific literature to date.
Professor John D. Clemens, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea Controlling enteric pathogens
Session 3 Discussion
Dr Martin Bachmann, Cytos Biotechnology AG, Zurich, SwitzerlandVaccination against chronic diseases
Martin F. Bachmann,PhD in molecular biology, has been Executive Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer of Cytos since October 1999. He received his PhD in 1995 at the Institute for Experimental Immunology, Zurich, in the laboratories of Nobel Laureate Prof. Zinkernagel and Prof. Hengartner. In 2005, he received a teaching position (Venia Legendi) for Immunology from the University of Zurich. He is author of more than 190 articles in internationally renowned scientific journals. His achievements were honored with two “ETH Medals” (1991 and 1995), the Pfizer Prize for Immunology (1998), and the Swiss Technology Award (2004).
Professor Margaret Liu, ProTherImmune & Karolinska Institute, USA and SwedenDNA vaccines
Margaret A. Liu, obtained an M.D. from Harvard Medical School then completed Internship and Residency in Internal Medicine and a Fellowship in Endocrinology, all at Massachusetts General Hospital with Board Certification in Internal Medicine and in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Dr. Liu was a Visiting Scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Instructor at Harvard Medical School, and the recipient of an NIH Physician Scientist Award. She served as Senior Director at Merck Research Laboratories, Vice President of Vaccines Research and Gene Therapy at Chiron Corporation, Vice-Chairman of Transgène, and Senior Advisor in Vaccinology at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Dr. Liu currently consults in the fields of vaccine and immunotherapy and is a Foreign Adjunct Professor at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. She is Vice-Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the International Vaccine Institute in Seoul, and is a member of various boards including the SAB of the Jenner Vaccine Institute, and served on: the NIH NIAID. Dr. Liu was named one of “The 50 Most Important Women Scientists” by Discover magazine in 2002. Her pioneering work in DNA vaccines has led to her receipt of honorary lectureships, including the Rose Lectureship, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, the Inaugural Saul Krugman Memorial Lecture, New York University, the M. R. Hilleman Lecture, Children’s Hospital of Pennsylvania, the Walter F. Enz Memorial Lecture Series, The University of Kansas, the Oon International Fellowship in Preventive Medicine, Cambridge University, England, and the Karolinska Research Lecture series at the invitation of the Nobel Committee.
Dr Rana Hajjeh, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USAIntroducing new vaccines: challenges of decision making and lessons learned from the recent Hib vaccine introduction experience
Rana A. Hajjeh, M.D. completed her BS and MD degrees at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, an internship and residency in Internal Medicine and a fellowship in infectious diseases at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. She joined the CDC in 1993 as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer. She then served as a medical epidemiologist with the Division of Bacterial and Mycotic diseases, where she developed international surveillance and research collaborations in South Africa, Thailand, Vietnam, and Peru and provided field assistance as WHO advisor for multiple meningitis consultations in Africa and the Middle East. Between 2003 -2005, she was posted by CDC to the U.S. NAMRU-3 in Cairo, Egypt to lead the Disease Surveillance Program, where she worked closely with WHO-EMRO to establish a network for surveillance of bacterial meningitis in the Middle East. Between 2005 and 2009, Dr. Hajjeh was the Director of the GAVI Hib Initiative at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, where she led efforts to accelerate Hib vaccine introduction in 72 GAVI-eligible developing countries. Dr Hajjeh is now the director of the division of bacterial diseases, where she leads a team of nearly 200 staff responsible for CDC's bacterial and vaccine-preventable disease surveillance and response efforts. She is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), a member of the American society of microbiology (ASM) and other professional organizations. She has coauthored over 100 peer reviewed publications and many book chapters, and serves as a reviewer for multiple journals.
Session 4 Discussion
Professor David Salisbury, UK Department of HealthRoundtable Discussion - Future Vaccines Priorities
Sir Gustav Nossal FRS, Dept. of Pathology, The University of Melbourne AustraliaVaccines and future global health needs
Gustav Nossal was born in Bad Ischl, Austria, in 1931, and came to Australia with his family in 1939. He studied Medicine at The University of Sydney and, after two years' residency at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, moved to Melbourne to work at The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, where he has spent most of his research career in immunology. He has written seven books and over 530 scientific articles in this and related fields. Nossal has served as President of the Australian Academy of Science, President of the International Union of Immunological Societies, Chairman of the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Chairman of the committee overseeing the Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization of the World Health Organization, Chairman of the Strategic Advisory Council of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation’s Children’s Vaccine Program and Deputy Chairman of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation. He was knighted in 1977, made a Companion of the Order of Australia in 1989 and has received numerous honours from 16 countries. In 2000 he was appointed Australian of the Year. He is currently Professor Emeritus, Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne and a Principal of Foursight Associates Pty Ltd.
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