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Organised by Professor Francis Farley FRS, Professor Rod Rainey and Professor John Chaplin
Wave energy machines are now deployed and working, others have clearly failed, new devices are in trial. Speakers will survey the fundamental physics, engineering in the real world, large forces but low velocity, deployment, maintenance and survival: dreams that did not work, what works but is too expensive, what might work better. How much energy is available, what can we expect?
There is an agreed theoretical framework, a guide to what is possible and impossible. The fundamental theory is well understood and the various motions in the sea which can be exploited. Heave, surge and pitch, all have their advantages... and limitations. Many devices work well in the laboratory; but cost, useful life and survival in storms are the crucial factors that determine commercial viability. Industry leaders will share their experiences, describe the status of the best current devices and discuss the potential for worldwide deployment.
Speakers with experience of oil platforms will speak about rogue waves, strength and fatigue, and the regulatory and insurance costs that must be included. Lessons will be drawn from the deployment of wind farms.
Finally leading scientific advisers from UK, Eire, France and Portugal will discus their national plans and possible collaboration in exploiting the wave power of the Atlantic.
The speakers include leading figures in this field and we are asking them not to advertise their favourite systems but rather to present a balanced rational assessment of the possibilities.
Download the programme here (PDF).
Biographies and audio recordings are available below.
The proceedings of this meeting are scheduled to be published in a future issue of Philosophical Transactions A.
Professor Francis Farley FRS, University of Southampton, UKRubber tubes in the sea
An experimental physicist with experience of radar, electronics, reactors, particle physics, cancer treatment and wave energy. Built the first 3 cm ground based radar controlling the 15" guns at Dover (1942). Added a new Doppler system to detect moving vehicles on land, used by the army in Italy. Experiments with first British/Canadian reactor at Chalk River (1945). Taught physics in New Zealand, delegate to UN Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy (1955). Particle physics at CERN and Brookhaven, precise tests of relativity, measured the magnetic moment of the muon to better than 1 part in a billion. Cancer treatment with particle beams in Nice. Professor FarleyHas worked on wave energy since 1977, inventor of the triplate, the buckling resonant raft, the distensible buoy, the wave powered hydraulic ram, co-inventor of Anaconda.
Graduated University of Cambridge, PhD, ScD Fellow of Royal Society (1972), Hughes Medal (1980), Honorary Fellow, Trinity College Dublin (1987)
Publications: Methuen monograph Elements of Pulse Circuits (1955), papers on the above subjects.
Professor Rod Rainey, Oil and Gas Division, Atkins Ltd, UKKey features of wave energy
Rod Rainey read first engineering, then maths, at Cambridge University, graduating in 1971. He also has an MSc from Imperial College London, in control theory. He worked as a design engineer for Yarrow shipbuilders on the Clyde, and as a research fellow at Imperial College, before joining Atkins Oil and Gas division in 1978, where he has been ever since. He specialises in the scientific analysis of ships and offshore structures, and was responsible for the development of the AQWA suite of computer programs, which are the world’s most widely used in this field. He has written a number of well-known scientific papers, on slender body theory (JFM 1989, Proc.R.Soc 1995), on freak waves (J.Eng.Maths 2007), and on tidal barrages (JFM 2009). He has been closely associated with the development of the Pelamis and Anaconda wave energy devices. He is a visiting professor at the University College London and Southampton University.
Professor John Chaplin, University of Southampton, UKLaboratory testing the Anaconda
John Chaplin graduated with a BSc in Civil Engineering from the University of Bristol in 1967 and was awarded a PhD from the same department in 1971. Between periods in industry he has since held posts at the Universities of Karlsruhe and Liverpool, and at City University, London. Now a Research Professor at the University of Southampton, his research activities focus on experiments on various aspects of water wave mechanics and fluid/structure interaction, and related analysis.
From the mid-1970s, when wave loading on stationary and compliant components of offshore oil and gas systems was far from well understood, he worked on developing an understanding of interactions between waves and structures, with particular emphasis on wave-induced and vortex-induced vibrations. The results of this work have been fed into offshore design practice and continue to be used in validation of numerical models. Other areas of research include the two-phase flow in breaking waves in the ocean, and contributions to the understanding and development of several wavepower devices, including, since 2006, the Anaconda.
Professor Chiang Mei, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USAHydrodynamic principles of wave power extraction
Chiang is Ford Professor of Engineering Emeritus, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a hydrodynamicist with focus on the linear and nonlinear dynamics of ocean wave in general, including their propagation in coastal waters, effects on fine sediment transport and interaction with offshore structures. He has contributed to theory of wave power extraction since 1970, and is the author of a graduate text, Applied Ocean Surface waves (Wiley 1983) and a coauthor of its expanded sequel, Theory and Applications of Ocean Surface Waves, vols I and II, (World Scientific). A part of these texts is devoted to the theory of wave power extraction by floating bodies. In a recent collaboration with the Centre for Wave Energy Research, Technical University of Lisbon, he has studied the effects of coastline geometry on Oscillating Water Columns. His current interests include the dynamics of compact and sparse arrays of wave-absorbing buoys. For his past contributions to wave mechanics he has received the International Coastal Engineering Award, Moffat-Nichol Harbor Engineering Award, and Von Karman Medal in Engineering Mechanics, all from American Society of Civil Engineers, and the Life-time Achievement Award by the Offshore and Arctic Mechanics Technology Section of American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Professor Johannes Falnes, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NorwayHeaving buoys, point absorbers and arrays
Johannes Falnes, now Professor Emeritus at NTNU, graduated as ‘siv.ing.’ (M.Eng) in 1957 and as ‘dr.techn.’ in 1972, both from the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH), Electrotechnical Department. He was employed at NTH, Trondheim, Norway, 1956-1959, CERN, Geneva, 1959-1961, University of Bergen, Norway, 1961-1964 and NTH (subsequently Norwegian University of Science and Technology - NTNU), Trondheim, 1965-2001.
Since retirement he has been a Visiting Scientist at CeSOS (Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures), NTNU, 2005-2010. He and his colleague Kjell Budal became active in wave-energy 1973. Until external financial support, from the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, ended in 1983, they managed R&D projects on phase-controlled point-absorber buoys. Falnes has taught at and organised several courses and events on ocean-wave energy, and he is author of the textbook Ocean Waves and Oscillating Systems: linear interactions including wave-energy extraction, published in 2002. He co-authored the book Wave Energy Conversion, published in 2003, which provided a review of the state-of-the-art in wave-energy technology.
Dr Alain Clément, Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, FranceDiscrete control strategies for resonant wave energy devices
Alain H Clément was born in Paris in 1953. In 1975, he received the degree of Engineer in Naval Engineering from Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France). After four years of research, he obtained a PhD from the same Institution a PhD for his work entitled: Theoretical and numerical study of the motions of floating bodies in regular waves and water of uniform finite depth. He obtained in 1998 the HDR, french diploma giving access to full Professor chair. His favourite research topics include time-domain simulation of free surface flows by BEM methods, design and optimisation of wave energy devices, real time control of wave energy devices. In this field he has published 30 articles in international peer reviewed Journals or books, and has given 83 communications at international conferences. He has supervised 21 PhD students since 1983, and has given lectures on various topics including gravity waves theory, unsteady hydrodynamics and wave forces on large structures for post-graduate students at Masters level. He is a referee for a number of international journals in this field, including Journal of Fluid Mechanics, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluid, Applied Ocean Research, Journal of Engineering Mathematics. Currently he is still working at Ecole Centrale de Nantes where he is, since 1998, the Director of the Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides, a joint research unit between ECN and CNRS
Dr Matthew Witt, PRIMaRE, University of Exeter, UKBiodiversity impacts of wave energy
Dr Witt’s research focuses on both fundamental and applied aspects of marine vertebrate ecology, including foraging behaviour, habitat-use, population assessment and human-wildlife space conflict. Acquiring knowledge on the distribution and behaviour of marine vertebrates is often logistically challenging. Dr Witt therefore uses a variety of remote data collection technologies in his research, such as satellite tracking, archival data loggers, acoustic detection and tracking, and satellite-based earth observation. His work in the field of wave energy focuses on a detailed and long-term assessment of the potential impacts of wave energy on marine biodiversity from benthic to pelagic ecosystems at the Wave Hub site off the north coast of Cornwall (UK).
Dr Tom Heath, Voith Hydro Wavegen, UKReview of oscillating water columns
A Member of the IMechE, Dr Tom Heath has worked on wave power projects since the founding of Wavegen in 1992 and has been involved in the study and testing of a wide range of wave energy converters. Before that he worked in the carbon fibre industry specialising in manufacturing technology. He was Project Manager on the LIMPET shoreline project and was responsible for coordinating the design of turbo-generation and control equipment for that plant. Since the acquisition of Wavegen by Voith Hydro he has been responsible for all aspects of engineering at Wavegen leading the team developing power take of systems for breakwater OWC units. With ten years experience in the field operation of OWC plant he is one of the most experienced of practical wave energy technologists
Professor Trevor Whittaker FREng, Queen's University, IrelandNearshore oscillating wave surge convertors and the development of Oyster
Trevor is Professor of Coastal Engineering at Queen's University, Director of Research for Environmental Engineering and Head of Marine Renewables. He is one of the founding members and technical advisor to the board of Aquamarine Power Ltd., a company formed to commercially develop the OysterTM wave power system. One of his significant engineering achievements has been as project manager of the team which designed, constructed and operated Britain's first wave power station located on the Isle of Islay. Prior to decommissioning in 1998, the 75kw plant was one of only four stations in the world supplying electricity to a national distribution grid. The significance of this work was recognised when the team was presented with The ESSO Energy award in 1994 by the Royal Society. This work lead to the construction of the 500kW LIMPET plant which was commissioned in 2001 and is now being commercially developed by Voith Hydro Wavegen Ltd. His latest wave power device, OysterTM was deployed at EMEC on Orkney in 2009 by Aquamarine Power Ltd and is providing a vital step towards the global development of multi MW wave power farms. Currently Oyster 2 is under development and will be deployed in 2011.
Dr Richard Yemm, Pelamis Wave Power, UKPelamis – experience from concept to connection
From a background in the wind energy sector, Richard founded Pelamis Wave Power in 1998. He is now the company’s Chief Technical Officer, responsible for all aspects of the technology R&D and product development programmes. Richard is also a Board Director of the Scottish Renewables Forum, Scotland’s renewables industry trade association.
Richard graduated with a first class BSc Honours degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Edinburgh in 1989, and was awarded a PhD in 1993.
Professor Stephen Salter, University of Edinburgh, UKHistorical impediments and ideas for removing them
Stephen Salter was born in Johannesburg South Africa in 1938. He served an old fashioned apprenticeship in the aircraft industry with Saunders-Roe on the Isle of Wight as a fitter, tool-maker and instrumentation engineer eventual working on the Black Knight rocket project before reading physics at Cambridge University where he stayed for six years doing research.
His interests have always been on the border of mechanics and electronics. He moved to The University of Edinburgh to build robots in Artificial Intelligence and then, in 1973, to Mechanical Engineering to work on wave energy. That required the design of new kinds of directional wave tank with absorbing wavemakers and new types of high-power, computer-controlled hydraulic pumps and motors. Small versions are now being installed in the transmissions of road vehicles where they allow improved engine management and the recovery of energy which would have been wasted in braking. These machines may, in future, be used for wind and tidal-stream energy. They enable the design of variable-displacement pumps which despite a low machinery weight can absorb the very high torque needed for multi-megawatt tidal-stream generators suitable for use in the full depth of the Pentland Firth.
Other interests are fatigue reduction in wind turbine blades, desalination using energy from sea waves, improving road-traffic congestion and the capacity of congested bridges, Stirling engines, the mathematics of nuclear disarmament, variable-pitch air turbines, unconventional ways of teaching design engineers and inventors, mine clearance, flood-prevention, the suppression of explosions and the reversal of global warming by increasing cloud albedo.
His research group has its own mechanical and electronic workshops and runs a wide tank with directional absorbing wave-makers. In 1986 he was awarded a Personal Chair in Engineering Design. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and an MBE. Rumours of his retirement in 2004 are exaggerated.
Dr Richard Porter, University of Bristol, UKCoupled resonant absorbers
Richard Porter gained a 1st class Honours degree in Mathematics from the University of Bristol in 1992 and completed a PhD in Mathematics in 1995, again at the University of Bristol under the supervision of Professor David Evans. He then became a Research Assistant with David Evans at Bristol for another 3 years. Following this, Richard worked for BAE Systems for just 6 months as a research scientist at the Sowerby Research Centre in Filton, Bristol before returning to the Department of Mathematics in 1999 to take up a post as a temporary lecturer for one year before being made a permanent lecturer in 2000. He was made a senior lecturer in 2008. His research interests include problems involving wave interactions with structures in the field of ocean waves, acoustics and elasticity.
Professor Yage You, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ChinaWave energy technology in China
Professor You has a Masters from Harbin Institute of Ship Engineering in Marine Engineering. He is currently Professor and Director of Ocean Energy Lab of Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Professor You has engaged in the research of wave energy conversion since 1988, having developed a floating Duck Wave Energy Convertor of 10 kW in capacity, designed and constructed a 100kW OWC wave power converter and a 50 kW oscillating buoy wave power converter. He has also developed a hydraulic-electrical power take-off system with self adaptive damping, stable output and an efficiency of 60%, developed a boundary element method for analyzing the flow fields of wave energy converters with arbitrary shape, onshore or offshore. He has also developed a numerical method for finding roots of nonlinear algebraic equations by Lie Group. Professor You owns 8 patents for wave energy conversion.
He was the first awardee of a second class Science and Technology Progress Award of Guangdong Province in 2005 and second awardee of a second class Natural Science Award of CAS in 1992.
Dr Robert Paasch, The Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center, Oregon State University, USAPacific perspective: from Alaska to New Zealand
Robert Paasch is the Boeing Professor of Mechanical Design in the School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering at Oregon State University, and the Director of the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, a partnership between Oregon State University and the University of Washington.
Dr Paasch has 20 years of academic research experience in the areas of automated monitoring and diagnosis, probabilistic and robust design, and design theory and methodology. He began working with Dr. Annette von Jouanne on marine renewable energy three years ago. He also has 10 years of industrial experience as a project engineer and engineering manager at Hewlett Packard, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Marvin Landplane. He received his B.S. from the California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, his MSc from the University of California at Davis, and his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley. He is a registered Professional Engineer in California.
Dr Rick Jefferys, ConocoPhillips, UK What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?
Rick Jefferys received a degree in Engineering and a PhD on Wave Energy from Cambridge University. He subsequently researched wave and tidal power at the CEGB, then moved to University College London, lecturing in Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture for six years. In 1986, he joined Conoco as a hydrodynamicist, working in London and Houston on design and analysis of floating structures, including the Heidrun TLP, and development of probabilistic design methods. He worked in gas commercial on real options, storage, markets and economic analysis, moving into sustainability with a focus on emerging technologies and greenhouse gases. His work in the Houston based Emerging Technology and Alternative Energy groups has concentrated on renewable energy, energy storage and, carbon capture and storage.
Dr Andrew Garrad, GL-Garrad HassanLessons from the wind power industry
Andrew Garrad was, until July 2009, the Managing Director of the Garrad Hassan (GH) Group, the world’s largest renewable energy consultancy, which he founded in 1984. In July 2009, Germanischer Lloyd’s renewables activities and Garrad Hassan merged into a single company employing 750 people in the renewables business. Dr Garrad is the President and General Manager of this new business.
Dr Garrad has been involved in wind energy for more than 30 years. He founded Garrad Hassan in 1984. He is a past Chairman of the BWEA, a board member of the EWEA and a Trustee of the Centre for Sustainable Development. He is a Chartered Engineer, a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and a Fellow of the Energy Institute. His first degree from Oxford University is in Engineering Science and his PhD is in Theoretical Fluid Mechanics.
In 2006 he received the European Wind Energy Association’s Poul la Cour prize for outstanding achievement in the wind energy field. He was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering by the University of Bristol in July 2009.
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