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Smeaton (1724-1792), an engineer, designed many of the watermills, engines, bridges and canals that paved the way for Britain's industrial revolution. Because he often had to employ a site manager, his engineering drawings were models of clarity and logic. One of his greatest achievements was the Eddystone lighthouse, built on a rock in the open sea fourteen miles south of Plymouth. Smeaton's design, based on his observations of the tapering trunks of trees, became standard for all such lighthouses.
Andrade (1887-1971) trained as a physicist and studied with Ernest Rutherford FRS. His works helped to explain current developments in physics to a wide audience. Rutherford had proposed the nuclear model of the atom in 1911, in which electrons orbited a tiny, dense nucleus.
Photos supplied by and © MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge
Klug (b. 1926) is a molecular biologist and Nobel prize-winner who has made important contributions to the understanding of virus structures. Initially he used X-rays and electron microscopy to study the structures, and then created three-dimensional models such as these. The models help to explain how viruses replicate.
Book prize event 6 Mar
History of science lecture 7 Mar
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