Challenges in engineering platform technologies for quantum technology
Professor Douglas Paul, University of Glasgow, UK
The dimensions required for many quantum devices has to be at the nanoscale to enable quantum effects to be engineered. At these length scales surfaces dominate and reproducible nanofabrication is a serious challenge.
I will demonstrate 1D silicon nanowires that demonstrate high quality single electron tunnelling that are being developed with the application of a new quantum based current standard. The challenges of producing clean devices to reduce scattering and techniques to reduce parasitic second order quantum processes will be reviewed.
Next the challenges of producing high performance Ge on Si single photon avalanche detectors will be discussed. These devices are being developed to allow integrated non-linear and quantum photonics all on a silicon platform. Here again surfaces are key along with reducing defect densities. Also key is engineering the technology so that it can be translated to silicon foundries. Recent results using commercial wafers will be presented.
Finally a miniature MEMS device which has been used to measure the gravitational forces from the earth tides will be reviewed where a different set of challenges are key. Such devices can be used for geological prospecting for petrochemicals, early detection of volcano eruptions and a range of security applications. Engineering long term stability over weeks requires thermal and mechanical challenges to be addressed.
Laser technology for emerging quantum technology application and instruments
Dr Graeme Malcolm, Chief Executive, M Squared
Many emerging themes of quantum technology including quantum sensing, quantum imaging, quantum communications, quantum computing and quantum time-keeping and navigation have specific and precise laser source requirements.
In this talk we examine the laser requirements both in terms of specific technical requirements and form factor and usability requirements. We review wavelength accessibility, tuneability and precision control, linewidth requirements, noise considerations and phase-locking of multiple sources alongside a broader description of emerging themes for miniaturisation of lasers for quantum applications.
Precision solid-state lasers based on Ti:Sapphire and Optically-Pumped Semiconductors (OPS) or Vecsels are described along with techniques to achieve tuneability, linewidth and noise control that results in the critical parameters required for demanding quantum applications. Wavelength extension achieving agility of tuning across the spectrum from the deep UV to mid-IR will also be discussed.
Case studies of key results and quantum developments enabled by novel laser technology and our own integration of novel laser sources into quantum subsystems and systems will be reviewed. Current progress on optical and cold atom/ion system miniaturisation and ruggedisation and development of IP-enabled digital control systems to integrate quantum systems will be reported.
The roadmap for future laser requirements and developments will be considered. The evolution of the first generation of quantum instruments is defining requirements for component device and sub-system miniaturisation and systems-level complex control.
Finally a brief review of the emergence of a Quantum Technologies industry and the UK role in this globally emerging market will be analysed.
Enabling technologies for ultra-cold quantum technology
Dr Matt Himsworth, University of Southampton, UK
Ultra-cold matter, in the form of laser-cooled atoms and ions, holds a unique and fertile role in quantum technology with applications from gravitational sensors to quantum simulation. This is due to over three decades of development into producing extremely pure quantum states with highly sophisticated control techniques. Theoretical application of ultra-cold matter are far ahead of experimental capabilities because the apparatus is complex, labour intensive to build and operate, and sensitive to noise and instabilities - even within a laboratory environment. These properties throttle the speed in which ultra-cold quantum physics progresses, but also shackles it to the laboratory and is a major hurdle to industrial appropriation.
Research at the University of Southampton aims to overturn this trend by exploring materials and methods to miniaturise, simplify and economically mass-produce ultra-cold apparatus, specifically the magneto-optical trap which is at the heart of all cold atomic systems. I will discuss our progress into developing ground-breaking micro-litre, and passive, ultrahigh vacuum cells using silicon wafer microfabrication techniques. These methods can also be applied to produce chip-scale vapour cells, as well as atom and ion traps. We are also developing hermetic electrical feedthroughs to supply ‘atom-chips’ and in-vacua electronics with power and also provide integrated viewports. Together with compact stabilised lasers and monolithic optics being developed by the Quantum Technology Hubs, this technology will move toward our ultimate goal of commercial matchbox-sized atomic sensor and clock systems.
Integrated quantum photonics
Professor Mark Thompson, University of Bristol, UK
Photonics is a promising approach to realising quantum information technologies, where entangled states of light are generated and manipulated to realise fundamentally new modes of computation, simulation and communication, as well as enhanced measurements and sensing. Historically bulk optical elements on large optical tables have been the means by which to realise proof-of-principle demonstrators in quantum physics. More recently, integrated quantum photonics has enabled a step change in this technology by utilising state-of-the-art photonic engineering approach to deliver complex and compact quantum circuits. In this talk, I will give an overview of the challenges and opportunities that integrated quantum photonics present, highlighting recent achievement in chip-to-chip quantum communications, programmable quantum circuits, chip-based quantum simulations and routes to scalable quantum information processing.