The Knowledge, Networks and Nations project, in co-operation with Elsevier, was led by a high-level Advisory Group of international leaders and experts in international science and science policy:

Professor Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith FRS (Chair)

Chris is currently President of the Council of SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and its Applications in the Middle East), a Vice President of the Royal Society, and a Visiting Professor in the Oxford Physics Department.  He has served as Chairman of the Council of ITER (2007-09) and of the Consultative Committee for Euratom on Fusion (2004-09), and was Director of UKAEA Culham (2003-2008), with responsibility for the UK's fusion programme and for operation of the Joint European Torus (JET).  He was Provost and President of University College London (1999 - 2002), Director General of CERN (1994 - 1998), and Chairman of Oxford Physics (1987 - 1992).  While at Culham he developed and vigorously promoted the ‘Fast Track’ approach to the development of fusion power, which has been officially adopted by the European Commission.  During his mandate as DG of CERN the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was approved and started, and the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) was successfully upgraded.  After completing his Doctorate in Oxford in 1967, he worked briefly in the Physical Institute of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow, before spending periods at CERN and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, after which he returned to Oxford in 1974.  Chris Llewellyn Smith has written and spoken widely on science funding, international scientific collaboration and energy issues.  He has served on many advisory bodies nationally and internationally, including the UK Prime Minister’s Advisory Council on Science and Technology (1989-92).  His scientific contributions and leadership have been recognised by awards and honours in seven countries on three continents.

Sir Leszek Borysiewicz KBE FRS

Leszek has been Chief Executive of the Medical Research Council since October 2007. Prior to the MRC, Sir Leszek was Deputy Rector at Imperial College London. He was knighted in 2001 for his research into developing vaccines, including a vaccine to prevent the development of cervical cancer. A physician by training, Sir Leszek specialises in viral immunology, infectious diseases, cell mediated immunity, virus associated malignancy and vaccine development. He has held a number of high-profile posts including governor of the Wellcome Trust, chair of the HEFCE RAE Main Panel A, council member of Cancer Research UK and trustee of the Nuffield Trust. Sir Leszek was a founding Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences, and is a Fellow of Cardiff University. He holds honorary degrees from the Universities of Southampton and Hull. From October 2010 Sir Leszek will be the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.

Professor Lorna Casselton FRS

Lorna is Foreign Secretary and Vice-President of the Royal Society. She is also Emeritus Professor of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Oxford. Professor Casselton researches sexual development in fungi, and is distinguished for her genetic and molecular analysis of the mushroom Coprinus cinereus. She was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1999 and became Foreign Secretary and Vice-President in 2006. Professor Casselton began her career in lecturing and research as an assistant lecturer at Royal Holloway College, London. She became Professor of Genetics at Queen Mary College, London and was later awarded an AFRC/BBSRC Postdoctoral Fellowship, followed by a BBSRC Senior Research Fellowship in 1995. Professor Casselton was a Fellow of St Cross College Oxford from 1993-2003, and was appointed Professor of Fungal Genetics at Oxford in 1997. She was a member of the Royal Society's Council from 2002-2003, and rejoined the council in 2006. As Foreign Secretary, Professor Casselton's duties include overseeing the Society's international relations programme, in particular its contact with other scientific academies, and its allocation of funding to both international researchers and UK researchers wanting to study abroad.

Professor Sir Gordon Conway KCMG DL FRS

Gordon is Professor of International Development at Imperial College, London. From 2005-2009 he was Chief Scientific Adviser to the Department for International Development. Previously he was President of The Rockefeller Foundation and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sussex.  He was educated at the Universities of Wales (Bangor), Cambridge, West Indies (Trinidad) and California (Davis).  His discipline is agricultural ecology.  In the early 1960's, working in Sabah, North Borneo, he became one of the pioneers of sustainable agriculture. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2004 and made a Knight Commander of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George in 2005.  He was recently President of the Royal Geographical Society. He has authored The Doubly Green Revolution: Food for all in the 21st century (Penguin and University Press, Cornell).

Professor Mohamed Hag Ali Hassan

Mohamed is president of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) and executive director of TWAS, the academy of sciences for the developing world. He is co-chair of the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP). In addition, he serves on a number of committees with other organizations worldwide. He holds a PhD in Plasma Physics from the University of Oxford, UK (1974), and is a former professor and dean of the School of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Khartoum, Sudan. He received the order of scientific merit of Brazil and the order of merit of Italy. He is a fellow of TWAS, AAS, the World Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Islamic World Academy of Sciences; honorary member of the Colombian Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences and the Palestine Academy of Science and Technology; corresponding member of the Belgian Royal Overseas Academy of Sciences; and foreign fellow of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences. His research areas include theoretical plasma physics, physics of wind erosion and sand transport. He is married and has two daughters and a son.

Professor Melissa Leach

Melissa is Professorial Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) Sussex, leader of the Knowledge, Technology and Society (KNOTS) team, and Director of the ESRC STEPS  (Social, Technological and Environmental Pathways to Sustainability) Centre. She originally trained as a geographer (MA Cambridge) and social anthropologist (PhD London) and over the last twenty five years has been closely involved both in ethnographic fieldwork especially in West Africa, and in extensive interdisciplinary research. This has engaged anthropology with historical, ecological and science and technology studies approaches, as well as working with foresters, agricultural and medical scientists. Her work has forwarded new perspectives around  environmental and forest change, natural resource management, indigenous technical knowledge and citizen science, and the politics of science and knowledge in policy processes linked to environment, health, vaccination, epidemics and medical research. She serves on the Boards of several social science and Development Studies journals and national and international research centres. Her recent book publications include, among others,  Dynamic Sustainabilities: technology, environment, social justice (Earthscan, 2010, with Ian Scoones and Andy Stirling); Epidemics: Science, governance and social justice (Earthscan, 2010, Ed with Sarah Dry); Vaccine Anxieties (Earthscan, 2007, with James Fairhead);  Science and Citizens: Globalisation and the Challenge of Engagement (edited with Ian Scoones and Brian Wynne, Zed Press, 2005), and Science, Society and Power: Environmental knowledge and policy in West Africa and the Caribbean (with J. Fairhead, Cambridge, 2003), and Negotiating Environmental Change (edited with F. Berkhout and I. Scoones, Edward Elgar, 2003).

Professor Angela McLean FRS

Angela is a Senior Research Fellow in Theoretical Life Sciences at All Souls College and Professor of Mathematical Biology in the Department of Zoology. She is also a Director of the Institute for Emerging Infections in the James Martin 21st Century School. Her research interests lie in the use of mathematical models to aid our understanding of the evolution and spread of infectious agents. She is a leading proponent of the modeling of the dynamics of infections and immune responses within individual hosts as well as models of the spread of infections from one host to another.

Professor Goverdhan Mehta FRS

Goverdhan is currently National Research Professor and CSIR Bhatnagar Fellow at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. He obtained his Ph.D in organic chemistry from Poona University/National Chemical Laboratory, which was followed by postdoctoral research at Michigan State University and Ohio State University in the USA. He has held Professorial positions at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, the University of Hyderabad (Vice- Chancellor 1994-1998) and the Indian Institute of Science (Professor and Director 1998-2005) in Bangalore. He also held the Srinivas Ramanujan Research Professorship of the Indian National Science Academy (1992-97) and was invited to several named/visiting Professorships worldwide. He has received over 40 major research awards/medals and over a dozen honorary doctorate degrees in India and abroad, as well as the first Trieste Science Prize (2007) in Chemical Sciences awarded by TWAS. He has presented over 250 plenary/ invited/named lectures and published over 400 research papers, as well as serving on the Editorial Board of more than a dozen leading Journals in Chemistry. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society and several other science academies including the Indian National Science Academy where he was President from 1999-2001, the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS), a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an  Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and of the World Innovation Foundation, and received the ‘Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur’ and Padma Sri awards from the Presidents of France and India respectively.  He served as President of the International Council for Science (ICSU) from 2005-2008 and was a founder Co-chair of the Inter Academy Council (2000-2005). Professor Mehta has wide ranging research interests in organic chemistry and is also actively involved in global science policy and educational issues.

Professor John F B Mitchell OBE FRS

John gained a BSc and PhD, Theoretical Physics in from The Queen's University, Belfast. In 1978, he took charge of the Climate Change group in what is now the MetOffice’s Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research. His main speciality is the climatic effects of increases in greenhouse gases and related pollutants. He is currently Director of Climate Science at the MetOffice. He was a lead author in the first three IPCC Working Group I reports.  He is twice winner of the Norbert Gerbier-Mumm Prize (with colleagues) and received the EGU Hans Oeschger Medal.  He is a visiting Professor at the Universities of Reading and Exeter and a Honorary Professor at the University of East Anglia. 

Dr Colin Osborne

Colin is a Royal Society University Research Fellow in the Department of Animal and Plant Sciences at the University of Sheffield. In October 2010 he will move to a Senior Lectureship in the same department. Colin is a plant scientist with research interests in ecology and evolution, particularly in how evolution has shaped plant-environment interactions. His B.Sc. in Plant Sciences is from University of Manchester (1992), and his Ph.D. in Environmental Plant Physiology is from the University of Essex (1996). He has spent part of his research career in the USA, and currently has collaborations in South Africa, the USA, China and Switzerland. Colin coordinates a multi-disciplinary network to strengthen international research collaboration between scientists working on the ecology and evolution of tropical grasses.  He also leads the development of a web resource which integrates biological information on the world’s grass species for open access by the international scientific community.

Professor Martyn Poliakoff CBE FRS

Martyn was a student at King's College, Cambridge, B.A (1969) and Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry (1973) under the supervision of J. J. Turner FRS. He was appointed as a 1972-79 Research Officer in the Department of Inorganic Chemistry of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. In 1979, he moved to a Lectureship in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Nottingham. Promotion to Reader in Inorganic Chemistry and then to Professor of Chemistry followed in 1985 and 1991 respectively. In addition to his chair in Nottingham, Professor Poliakoff is an Honorary Professor of Chemistry at Moscow State University. From 1994-99, he held an EPSRC/Royal Academy of Engineering Clean Technology Fellowship at Nottingham. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society (2002), of the RSC (2002) and of the IChemE (2004). He was awarded CBE (2008) for "Services to Sciences" and made Honorary Member of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia (2008). He is currently a member of the Council of the IChemE.  He has collaborated widely with scientists across the world but particularly in Russia, USA, China and Ethiopia. His current research interests lie in Green Chemistry and the cleaner production of chemicals, particularly in the application of supercritical fluids as environmentally more acceptable solvents.

Philip Charles Ruffles CBE FREng FRS

Charles was formerly Director of Engineering and Technology Rolls-Royce plc until retirement in 2001 after which he was retained as Technical Advisor for three years. From 1990 onwards he was responsible for setting up many of the RR University Technology Centres which are recognised as exemplars of Industry/University partnerships in research. He was also involved in setting up the first overseas UTC in China. His involvement with overseas science activities covers North America, Europe, Russia, China and Singapore.  From 2001 to 2004 he was a member of the Advisory Council for Aeronautical Research in Europe and from 2003 to 2006 chaired the Programme Review Committee for the Cambridge/MIT programme. In 2009 he was a member of the International Review team of SIMTech in Singapore. He is presently a member of the Council for Science and Technology, a body that advises the Prime Minister and other ministers on Science and Technology policy.

Professor Caroline Wagner

Caroline specializes in science and technology and its relationship to innovation, policy, and society.  She is a Research Scientist at George Washington University Center for International Science and Technology Policy and CEO of Science-Metrix Corporation.  She is the North American editor of the journal Science & Public Policy.  During her career in science and technology policy, she has held a number of analytic and policy positions.  At the RAND Corporation, she was deputy to the Director of the Science & Technology Policy Institute, a research center serving the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.  Prior to joining RAND, Dr. Wagner was a Professional Staff Member for the United States Congress Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and before that, in the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment. She has served as an analyst for the United States federal government analyzing global developments in science and technology. Dr. Wagner has consulted to the World Bank, the European Commission, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the U.S. National Science Foundation and a number of governments.   She was a member of the United Nations Millennium Development Task Force on Science, Technology, and Innovation and a primary author of that task force’s report.   She holds a doctorate from the University of Amsterdam in Science & Technology Dynamics; an M.A. from George Washington University in Science, Technology and Public Policy; and a B.A. from Trinity College in Washington DC. In 2006, Dr. Wagner was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.  She is the author of a 2008 book, “The New Invisible College: Science for Development” and more than 20 monographs, many of which can be found on RAND’s website and a number of journal articles. She lives in Alexandria, Virginia with her husband and their three children.

Knowledge, networks and nations

Final report
published in March 2011

High level conference
held in March 2011

Project details and Advisory Group
announced in July 2010