Control of N2O production and consumption: regulation of gene expression by gas-sensitive transcription factors
Professor Stephen Spiro, University of Texas at Dallas, USA
Stephen Spiro obtained a B.Sc. in Molecular Biology from the University of Edinburgh (1984), and a Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of Sheffield (1988). His Ph.D. research was supervised by Professor John Guest, and involved the oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulator FNR. After graduation, he remained in Sheffield, first as a post-doctoral researcher, and then as an independent Research Fellow. In 1991, he took up a lectureship in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of East Anglia. In 2004, Stephen moved to an Associate Professor position in the School of Biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology, then in 2006 to the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Texas at Dallas. In recent years, his research has focused on the mechanisms by which nitric oxide influences gene expression, both in Escherichia coli, and in the denitrifying organism Paracoccus denitrificans.
Structural basis for nitrous oxide generation by bacterial nitric oxide reductases
Professor Yoshi Shiro, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Japan
Yoshi Shiro was born in 1956 in Nagoya, Japan. He obtained the PhD degree, at Department of Chemistry, Kyoto University, Japan, in 1985. After the posdoc of JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) for 2 year, he started his scientific carrier as the research scientist of RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) in Japan. In 1990-91, Shiro stayed in Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, USA, as a visiting scholar. In 2000, he was appointed as the chief scientist, PI, of Biometal Science Laboratory of RIKEN SPring-8 Center. His research interests are dynamics of metals in biology, i.e., sensing, transportation, storage and utilization of metals in biology.
Enzymology breaking down nitrous oxide- the nitrous oxide reductase
Professor Isabel Moura, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Isabel received her Degree in Chemical Engineering from Technical University of Lisbon (Pt) in 1974.She received her Masters in Physical Inorganic Chemistry in 1977from New University of Lisbon. She was awarded her PHD from New University of Lisbon in 1981 on the thesis entitled “Characterization of two types of iron sulphur centers in two proteins isolated from Desulfovibrio gigas”.Since then she was an Assistant Professor until 1981 in the New University of Lisbon, an Associate Professor in 1986 and a full Professor in 1997. She has done the habilitation in 1994 in the same University.
During her career she was a Visiting Professor in University of Geogia, Athens,USA. During the period 2000/2011 she was the Head of the Chemistry Department of the Faculty of Sciences and Technology from the New University of Lisbon and the Director of the Associated Laboratory Requimte for Sustainable Chemistry. Her main work is Structure-Function of Metalloproteins, application of biochemical and spectroscopic tools (NMR, EPR and Mössbauer), proteins involved in relevant bacterial metabolic pathways – N and S Biocycles.
Nitric oxide reductase cytochrome P450nor involved in fungal denitrification to evolve N2O
Professor Hirofumi Shoun, University of Tokyo, Japan
Hirofumi Shoun completed his doctoral studies in University of Tokyo with Kei Arima. Then in the same laboratory (microbiology and fermentation) he worked with Teruhiko Beppu on microbial oxygenases.
At University of Tsukuba, Japan, Hirofumi Shoun found denitrification by fungi (eukaryote) although it was then thought that only bacteria can participate in denitrification. Further, other novel nitrogen metabolisms by fungi, codenitrification and ammonia fermentation, were also found. He also showed that a cytochrome P450, termed P450nor, is involved in the fungal denitrification functioning as nitric oxide (NO) reductase. After returned to University of Tokyo, Shoun clarified the mechanism of nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants, and showed a method to reduce the emissions. Thus he expanded enormously the nitrogen world of microorganisms.