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Reversing biodiversity loss

Find answers to 16 key questions about biodiversity

  • Introduction

    At its simplest, biodiversity describes life on Earth – the different genes, species and ecosystems that comprise the biosphere and the varying habitats, landscapes and regions in which they exist. We've answered some of your most popular questions about biodiversity.


  • What is biodiversity?

    Biodiversity is all the living things on our planet – from the smallest bacteria to the largest plants and animals. So far, we have identified around 1.6 million species but that is probably only a small fraction of the forms of life on Earth.

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  • Why is biodiversity important?

    Biodiversity is essential for the processes that support all life on Earth, including humans. Without a wide range of animals, plants and microorganisms, we cannot have healthy ecosystems.

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  • How do we measure biodiversity?

    There is still much we do not know about the complexity of biodiversity on Earth. There are a number of ways that we measure it, with counting species the most common approach.

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  • What is the scale of biodiversity loss?

    The list of known recent extinctions is still a small fraction of all species on the planet but it is far above prehuman levels and the evidence suggests it is rising fast.

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  • We regularly hear of new species being discovered - does that not offset the loss of existing species?

    Every year thousands of previously unknown species are discovered, described and named.

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  • Where is most biodiversity loss happening and why?

    Biodiversity loss has been most pronounced on islands and in specific locations around the tropics.

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  • Is the rate of biodiversity loss increasing or decreasing?

    Compared to the 1.6 million species known about on Earth, the number of recorded extinctions can seem very low.

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  • What is the state of biodiversity in the UK?

    The UK boasts more than 70,000 known species of animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms.

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  • How do humans affect biodiversity?

    Humanity impacts the planet's biodiversity in multiple ways, both deliberate and accidental.

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  • How does the growing global population and increasing consumption affect biodiversity?

    Since the middle of the 20th century, the human population has grown dramatically.

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  • How does climate change affect biodiversity?

    The environmental changes being driven by climate change are disturbing natural habitats and species in ways that are still only becoming clear.

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  • How does deforestation affect biodiversity?

    Forests contain some of the richest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet. But between 1990 and 2020, around 420 million hectares of mainly tropical forest has been lost.

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  • What can we do to protect biodiversity?

    Loss of natural habitats has been taking place over thousands of years, but scientists are confident that we have ways to help biodiversity recover.

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  • What can I do as an individual to protect biodiversity?

    While large scale changes in behaviour, policies and measures will be essential, individuals have a vital part to play.

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  • Can we allow nature to regenerate without intervention?

    Biodiversity loss is a complex issue involving many overlapping processes. While nature can recover when left to do so, it requires dramatic changes in our behaviour for this to happen.

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  • How do we decide what is worth saving or putting our efforts into protecting?

    The value of the natural world can be interpreted in many ways, from their raw economic value to the inherent social, cultural and emotional benefits they provide.

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  • Acknowledgements

    Find the main authors and reviewers of the questions and answers on biodiversity.

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Watch Sir David Attenborough on why we need nature

Why is biodiversity important?

Biodiversity matters. At its simplest, biodiversity is about living nature or life on Earth - different genes, species and ecologies and, as a consequence, the varying landscapes, regions and habitats in which they exist. 

Biodiversity provides food, water and shelter; influences climate; controls disease; and regulates nutrient and water cycles. Biodiversity is integral to spiritual, cultural, psychological and artistic well-being. Biodiversity also has its own intrinsic worth distinct from human life. Humans are embedded in the natural world, and so are a part of biodiversity.

Acting against biodiversity loss

Today, however, the Earth is losing biodiversity at rates not seen in the modern era. Human responses to stop biodiversity decline have been woefully inadequate – with targets missed at both the international and national levels. 

The Royal Society has produced a range of resources to help stimulate debate among policy makers and the public:

  • Our short film, Why do we need nature? is voiced by Sir David Attenborough and explores some of the key themes on biodiversity loss
  • Our Q&A looks at some of the most commonly asked questions about biodiversity and draws on the expertise of our Fellows to answer them as accurately and dispassionately as possible
  • To strengthen the scientific evidence base on biodiversity and make this available to policymakers, the Royal Society has commissioned a series of essays from global experts in fields as diverse as conservation, ecology, environmental change, economics and population. 

Further reading

Scientific essays about biodiversity

  • The economics of biodiversity: The Dasgupta review

    By Partha Dasgupta

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  • Plural valuation of nature matters for environmental sustainability and justice

    By Berta Martín-López

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  • Why efforts to address climate change through nature-based solutions must support both biodiversity and people

    By Nathalie Seddon

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  • Past and future decline and extinction of species

    By Christopher N. Johnson

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  • Amazonia’s future: Eden or degraded landscapes?

    By Thomas E Lovejoy

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  • Behaviours for conserving biodiversity

    By R M Cowling

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  • Consumption patterns and biodiversity

    By Jianguo Liu

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  • Demographic trends and policy options

    By John Bongaarts

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  • Emergent and vanishing biodiversity, and evolutionary suicide

    By Simon A Levin

    Read the essay

  • Preserving global biodiversity requires rapid agricultural improvements

    By David Tilman and David R. Williams

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