12 September 2018
A joint report by the Royal Academy of Engineering and Royal Society presents an ambitious plan for how the UK can lead the way in deploying greenhouse gas removal (GGR) technologies to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. It is the first time that a range of GGR technologies have been assessed for their real-world potential in being used together to meet climate goals in the UK over the next 30 years.
The report’s authors state that while the UK’s first priority must be to maintain efforts to rapidly cut greenhouse gas emissions, GGR technologies have a role to play in counteracting emissions from aviation and agriculture, where the scope to completely reduce emissions is limited. However, to meet climate targets significant action is essential, starting now. Bringing the UK to net-zero emissions in 2050 will require annual removal of an estimated 130 megatonnes of CO2, even with stringent reductions in emissions.
The report also considers the global picture and outlines a scenario in which a portfolio of GGR technologies can be implemented together to achieve carbon removal across the world by 2100 to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement. Biological solutions like planting trees will become saturated by the end of the century and other GGR technologies will need to be developed and used in the longer term.
The technologies discussed in the report range from well-known and ready to deploy methods, such as forestation, to more speculative technologies like direct air capture, which aims to use chemical processes to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.
Each technology is assessed on its readiness for deployment in the time scale required, potential for scalability, costs, environmental and social impacts and how much of a ‘dent’ it can make in removing excess carbon to meet the targets.
Professor Gideon Henderson FRS, Professor of Earth Science at the University of Oxford and chair of the report working group, says, “If the UK acts now on greenhouse gas removal, we can reach national emissions targets and show how a major industrialised economy can play a leading role in meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement.
“In this report we’ve identified the available GGR technologies, how they might be used together for maximum effect, and how their phased development and deployment could enable the urgent action required to avoid the devastating impact of climate change."
“We must absolutely continue to prioritise rapid cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, but we will also have to use these GGR methods to achieve international climate goals, and steward the planet for future generations.”
Professor Nilay Shah FREng, Director of the Centre for Process Systems Engineering at Imperial College London and member of the report working group, says, “No single technology alone can do enough to limit the effects of climate change. The report highlights the portfolio of greenhouse gas removal technologies required in order to make meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement possible."
"However, delivery of these technologies at the necessary scale will present many challenges. Overcoming these will require a concerted effort from engineers, scientists and governments worldwide. For the goal to remain in our sights action must be taken now.”
The report also calls for action in a number of key areas in order to meet the overall goals of the Paris Agreement.
Download the full report and executive summary, and watch Professor Gideon Henderson talk about the key findings of the report.